Review Hindi 101

Lesson 1-9

Hindi script -Link 

 

Hindi alphabet cheat sheet -Link 

Lesson-1

Word order = Sub+Object+verb

word order link 

  1. Negatives normally placed before the verb
    1. यह मौसम ख़राब नहीं (negative) है (verb)। (This weather is not bad)
    2. My sister is not tall.

मैं ठीक हूँ।

Asking questions:

क्या =what/questions mark

What

What is your name?

आपका नाम क्या है?

 

Questions marker = when you ask yes/no questions.

Are you Indian?

क्या आप हिंदुस्तानी हैं?

Is it a home?

क्या यह एक घर है?

 

Lesson-2

postposition का/के/की -Link 

Pronouns – Link 

  • का, के, की is based on the number and gender of the object or person possessed, not the possessor

 

  • The order of the phrase is always the same!
    • Possessor + का, के, की + object/person possessed

Pronoun

Lesson-3 

 

Adjectives – Link 

AdjectivesLink 

Declension of Adjectives

  • When constructing masculine nouns in the oblique, adjectives that end in आ also need to be constructed differently
    • The oblique form of such adjectives is the same as the plural form of the adjective
  • Using the pronoun “का” at the end of a pronoun/noun causes it to become an adjective, and so in the oblique, words it is joined to act like ”आ” adjectives

 

Lesson-4 

 

Simple postposition-link 

में    In                  

To को 

तक Until/up to

पर On/at 

से  From, since, by, with  

 

 

Lesson-5 

Simple past tense -link

Simple past tense (Plural)-link 

 

How many/How (much)-link 

  • कितना is used to ask about the quantity of a noun (how much/how many)
  • Examples:
    • यह दीवार कितनी ऊंची है?
      • How (much) high is this wall? 
    • वहाँ कितने आदमी खड़े हैं?

How many men are standing there?

Both kitna (कितना) and kaisa (कैसा) belong to the आ ending adjectives so the ending changes based on gender, case, and number of the noun that is being described

 

Singular Plural
Masculine कितना/कैसा कितने/कैसे
Feminine कितनी/कैसी कितनी/कैसी

 

 

  1. Interrogatives -link
  2. क्या, कहाँ, कौन generally come before the verb
    1. यह (subject) क्या (interrogative) है (verb)?
    2. Where is that pen? 

यह क्या है?

किताब कहाँ है?

आप कौन हैं?

किसका/किसके/किसकी→ Whose

कौन-सा→ Which

Use कौन-सा when discussing objects. The question word will agree to the gender and plurality of the subject.

 

Lesson-6 

 

Asking one’s age

There are two ways to ask someone’s age in Hindi.

  1. आपकी उम्र क्या है? — This means “What age are you” (blank +ka/ke/kee umr kya hai?)
  2. आप कितने साल के हैं? — This means “How many years are you”

Answer:

मैं बीस साल का हूँ। I am 20 years old (m.)  मैं बीस साल की हूँ। I am 20 years old (f.)

मेरी उम्र बीस साल है।

Lesson-7

 

Greetings -link 

  • प्रणाम “Reverential Salutional” (a formal term used to greet elders)
  • नमस्ते/नमस्कार
  • राम राम “ Hindi Greeting” 
  • हरे कृष्णा
  • राधे-राधे
  • जय श्री कृष्णा
    • आदाब “Greetings!” (used to greet a speaker of Urdu)
    • अस्सलाम अलैकुम “Peace be upon you” (used when greeting an Urdu speaker)
    • ख़ुदा हाफ़िज़ “May God protect you” (used  in Urdu when parting)
  • You can use the polite suffix जी, साहिब, साहिबा, साहब
  • शर्मा जी, कुमार जी, कुमार साहिब, कुमार साहिबा, रमेश जी, रमेश साहिब

 

  1. Masculine nouns that end in आ
    1. Add ए in singular oblique and plural direct
    2. Add ओं in the plural oblique 
  2. Masculine nouns ending in ई
    1. Shorten the vowel in the plural oblique form and add the semi-vowel य before oblique ending
  3. Masculine nouns ending in ऊ
    1. Shorten the vowel in the plural oblique form
  4. All other masculine nouns
  5. Exceptional आ ending masculine nouns 
    1. Follow the same pattern as in (3)
    2. Mainly nouns that signify a relationship or are from Sanskrit language

 

Masculine Nouns That End In आ – link 

Singular Direct Singular Oblique Plural Direct Plural Oblique
कमरा

(room)

कमरे में

(in the room)

कमरे

(rooms)

कमरों में

(in the rooms)

 

All Other Masculine Nouns

Singular Direct Singular Oblique Plural Direct Plural Oblique
घर

(room)

घर में

(in the room)

घर

(homes)

घरों में

(in the rooms)

 

Exceptions with आ

 

Singular Direct Singular Oblique Plural Direct Plural Oblique
मामा

(room)

मामा में

(in the room)

मामा

(rooms)

मामाओं में

(in the rooms)

 

How do we use चाहिए? – link 

The person who is the subject of चाहिए is governed by को

[Subject + को ] + [Direct Object] + चाहिए

 

Literally, this translates as: “To [subject], [direct object] is needed.”

========

To use want/need in the past tense, all we will need to do is add था/थी/थे/थीं to the end of the previously learned structure. But the verb agreement will occur with the indirect object.

Structure:

Subject + को  Indirect Object/Infinitive Verb चाहिए था/थी/थे/थीं

Ex1. मुझे पानी चाहिए था ।

Ex2.  कविता  को खाना खाना चाहिए थी ।

Ex3.  मुझे कुछ आम चाहिए थे ।

 

Lesson-8 

Feminine nouns – link 

Feminine nouns that end in ई, इ, or इया

 

Singular Direct Singular Oblique  Plural Direct Plural Oblique 
लड़की लड़की में लड़कियाँ  लड़कियों में

 

All other feminine nouns

Singular Direct Singular Oblique  Plural Direct Plural Oblique 
चीज़ चीज़ में चीज़ें  चीज़ों में

 

Imperatives – link 

  • Intimate
    • Remove the suffix (ना) from the infinitive form of the verb
      • आना (to come) becomes आ
      • तू आ
  • Familiar
    • Remove the suffix and add ओ
      • आना becomes आओ == तुम आओ /तुम बैठो 
    • Verbs that end in ई or ऊ have the ending vowels shortened before adding the new suffix 
      • Verbs that end in ई have added य before the suffix
      • पीना (to drink) becomes पियो
    • Irregulars 
      • देना (to give) becomes दो
      • लेना (to take) becomes लो
      • Polite/Formal
        • Remove the suffix and add इए
          • बोलना (to speak) becomes बोलिए
          • आप बोलिए, आप खाइए
        • Irregulars 
          • पीना adds जिए instead of इए and becomes पीजिए
          • देना adds जिए instead of इए and becomes दीजिए
          • लेना adds जिए instead of इए and becomes लीजिए
          • करना (to do) adds जिए instead of इए and becomes कीजिए
      • Polite Future
        • Same as Polite/Formal but add गा to end of Polite/Formal Imperative
          • बोलना becomes बोलिएगा
          • आप खाइए।
      • Infinitive as Imperative
        • Works with तुम, तू
        • Use the infinitive as the command verb
        • Usually suggests something that occurs at a point later in time than the immediate future
        • तुम आना, तुम टीवी देखना।
      • Negation
        • Add मत or न directly before the imperative verb
        • वहाँ मत जाओ।

को with देना 

मुझे किताब दो।

उसको पानी दीजिए।

 

को with बेचना 

उसे किताब बेचो।

मुझे घर बेचो।

 

Lesson-9

 

Imperfective present tense – link 

  • Imperfect participle: stem of verb + imperfect verb ending
  • Tense marker: appropriate form of होना

 

Example: I speak in class.

मैं कक्षा में बोलता हूँ.

  1. When the imperfect present tense is negated, the regular position of the negative adverb, नहीं, is directly before the participle. The tense marker is generally omitted but may be included for particular emphasis.

I (m) speak Hindi.  मैं हिन्दी बोलता हूँ |

I (m) don’t speak Hindi.  मैं हिन्दी नहीं बोलता |

bhi also-link 

को with जानना

मैं अमिताभ को जानती हूँ।

मैं आपको नहीं जानती।

Link  ke paas 

को with देना

मैं कुत्ते को खाना देती हूँ।

 With the destination of a verb of motion

को can be used to mark the destination of a verb of motion, although it is frequently unexpressed and never used when a destination is a person

Example 5: वह आदमी हर साल भारत (को) जाता है। In this case को is not necessary. 

That man goes to India every year

Example 6: कल मेरे घर (को) आइएगा 

Please come to my home tomorrow

  • If the destination of a verb of motion is a person, then that person is marked by the postposition के पास (near), rather than को

Example 7: अभी डॉक्टर के पास जाओ। Use के पास instead of को 

(You) go to the doctor right now.

Example 8: वह मेरे पास कुछ पूछने के लिये आती है।Use के पास instead of को 

She comes to me in order to ask something

  1. With days of the week and dates

Some adverbial expressions that indicate the time an action takes place are governed by को 

Example 9: सोमवार को वे लड़कींयाँ विश्वविद्यालय जाती हैं। Day of the week is governed by को 

Those girls go to university on Monday

Example 10: दो तारीख़ को मेरे घर आना 

 Come to my home on the second

 

Numbers in Hindi – Link 

Days name in Hindi- link 

Meeting and greeting-link 

Hindi verbs -link 

 

 

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